Allan, D. (2005). Oxford placement test 1B2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, J. R. (1995). Cognitive psychology and its implications (4th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Batova, N. (2013). Academic listening: Is there a place for bottom-up processing? International Journal of Education and Research, 1
Broersma, M., & Cutler, A. (2008). Phantom word activation in L2. System, 36(1), 22-34.
Bozorgian, H., & Pillay, H. (2013) Enhancing foreign language learning through listening strategies delivered in L1: An experimental study. International Journal of Instruction, 6(1), 105-122.
Buck, G. (1995). How to become a good listening teacher. In D. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin (Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 113–128). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Chen, A. (2013). EFL listeners’ strategy development and listening problems: A process-based study. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 10(3), 81-101.
Danial, K. J., & Polloway, S. (2005). Advance organizers: Activating and building schema for more successful learning in participants with disabilities. Retrieved January 23, 2013, from www.www.kelseyradwick.com
Field, J. (2004). An insight into listeners’ problems: Too much bottom-up or too much top-down? System, 32(3), 363-377.
Fuente, M. J. (2012). Learners’ attention to input during focus on form listeningtasks: The role of mobile technology in the second language classroom. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from www.tanfonline.com.
Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development: Theory, practice and research implications. RELC Journal, 39
Goh, C. C. M. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28(1), 55-75.
Griffiths, R. (1991). Pausological research in an L2 context: A rationale, and review of selected studies. Applied Linguistics, 12(4), 345-64.
Hall, M. (2007). Phonological characteristics of Farsi speakers of English and l1 Australian English speakers’ perceptions of proficiency. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Curtin, Croatia.
Hasan, A. (2000). Learners’ perceptions of listening comprehension problems. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 13(2), 137-153.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis. London: Longman.
Kurita, T. (2012). Issues in second language listening comprehension and the pedagogical implications, Accents Asia, 5
Lin, C. Y., & Wang, H. C. (2006, May). Language identification using pitch contour information in the ergodic Markov model. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2006. ICASSP 2006 Proceedings. 2006 IEEE International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. I-I). IEEE.
Lingzhu, J. (2003). Training the university English learners to predict in listening class. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from www.eric.ed.gov, ED 482582.
Liu, N. F. (2002). Processing problems in L2 listening comprehension of university students in Hong Kong (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hong Kong University, Hong Kong. Retrieved on June 3, 2014 from www.ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3074191).
Lopez, A. O. (2004). Information and inference as combined cognitive process. Interdisciplinaria, (ESP), 23-34.
Masalimova, A., R., Porchesku, G., V., & Liakhnovitch, T., L. (2016). Linguistic foundation of foreign language listening comprehension. Mathematics Education, 11(1), 123-131.
McLaughlin, B. (1990). Restructuring. Applied Linguistics, 11, 113-128.
Navalpakkam, V., & Itti, L. (2006). An integrated model of top-down and bottom-up attention for optimizing detection speed. Paper presented at the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference, Computer Society Conference, IEEE 2, 2049-2056.
Nowrouzi, S., Tam, S. S., Nimehchisalem, V., & Zareian, G. (2014). Developing an instrument for Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension problems and listening strategies. Advances in Language and Literacy Studies, 5(3).
Pritchard, A. (2009). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Rahimi, A. H. (2012). On the role of strategy use and strategy instruction inlistening comprehension, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(3), 550-559.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, L., Dockrell, J., & Tomlinson, P. (1997). Piaget, Vygotsky and beyond: Futureissues for developmental psychology and education. London: Rutledge.
Stanovich, K. E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading (9th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Vandergrift, L. (2013). Listening: Theory and practice in modern foreign language competence. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from www.llas.ac.uk
Vandergrift, L. (2003). Orchestrating strategy use: Toward a model of the skilled second language listener. Language Learning, 53(3), 463-496.
Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. New York: Routledge.
Vargas, V. O., & Gonzalez, D. M. (2009). Applying bottom-up listening strategies to eighth grade in a public school. Retrieved June 15, 2013, from www. epositorio.utp.edu.coll
Xie, X. (2005). The influence of schema theory on foreign language reading comprehension. The English Teacher, 34, 65-67.
Yantis, S. (2004). Visual attention: Bottom-up versus top-down. Current Biology, 14, 850-872.