1Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Iran
2Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, USA
In this study, the researchers investigated a critical aspect of EFL/ESL writing pedagogy-the impact of teacher written commentary on student writer’s earlier drafts. Compositions of 80 Iranian undergraduate English majors were commented on using a trio of imperatives, statements, and questions on both content and form. Overall, the results indicated that the comments in the imperative form helped students improve their EFL/ESL writing ability more than the other two types. However, the difference between statements and questions was found not to be significant. The findings of this study, once again, emphasized the need for EFL/ESL writing instructors to communicate to learners with appropriate types of written comments. Moreover, employing imperative sentences can orient student writers towards a more accurate (i.e. form-focused) and appropriate (i.e. content-focused) composition writing.
Ashwell, T. (2000). “Patterns of teacher response to student writing in a multiple-draft composition classroom: Is content feedback followed by form feedback the best method?”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, pp.227-257.
Bitchener, J., and Knoch, U. (2008). “The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students”, Language Teaching Research, 12 (3), pp. 409-431.
Bitchener, J., and Knoch, U. (2009). “The value f a focused approach to written corrective feedback”, ELT Journal, 63(3), pp. 204-211.
Brown, J. D. (2005). Testing in Language Programs, New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Brown, J. D., and Bailey, K. M. (1984). “A categorical instrument for scoring second language writing skills”, Language Learning, 34 (1), pp. 21-42.
Ellis, R. (2009). “A typology of written corrective feedback types”, ELT Journal, 63 (2), pp. 97-107.
Ferris, D. (1995). “Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms”, TESOL Quarterly, 29 (1), pp. 34-54.
Ferris, D. (1997). “The influence of teacher commentary on student revision”, TESOL Quarterly, 31 (2), pp. 315-341.
Ferris, D. (1999). “The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: a response to Truscott (1996)”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 8 (1), pp. 1-11.
Ferris, D., Pezone, S., Tade, C. R., and Tinti, S. (1997). “Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be?”, Journal of Second Language Learning, 10, pp.161-184.
Hedgcock, J., and Lefkowitz, N. (1994). “Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity to teacher response in L2 composing”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 3 (2), pp. 141-163.
Hyland, F., and Hyland, K. (2001). “Sugaring the pill: praise and criticism in written feedback”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(3), pp. 185-212.
Hyland, F. (1998). “The impact of teacher written feedback on writers”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 7 (3), pp. 255-286.
Keh, C. (1990). “Feedback in the writing process: A model and methods for implementation”, ELT Journal, 44 (4), pp. 294-305.
Kepner, C. G. (1991). “An experiment in the relationship of types of written feedback to the development of second-language skills”, Modern Language Journal, 75, pp. 305-313.
Kroll, B. (2001). “Considerations for teaching an ESL/EFL writing course”, in Celce-Murcia (ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle, pp. 219-232.
Lee, I. (2008). “Student reactions to teacher feedback in two Hong Kong secondary classrooms”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, pp. 144-164.
Paulus, T. M. (1999). “The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(3), pp. 265-289.
Rahimi, M. (2009). “The role of teacher’s corrective feedback in improving Iranian EFL learners’ writing accuracy over time: Is learner’s mother tongue relevant?” Reading and Writing, 22(2), pp. 219-243.
Rashtchi, M., and Mirshahidi, S. (2011). “Written feedback: Still, a strong pedagogical tool”, Foreign Language Teaching Journal, Iranian Ministry of Education, 25(4), pp. 27-34.
Reid, J. (1994). “Responding to ESL students’ texts: the myths of appropriation”, TESOL Quarterly, 28 (2), pp. 273-292.
Shin, S. J. (2003). “The reflective L2 writing teacher”, ELT Journal, 57(1), pp. 3-10.
Shin, S. K. (2008). “Fire your proofreader! Grammar correction in the writing classroom”, ELT Journal, 62(4), pp. 358-365.
Sugita, Y. (2006). “The impact of teacher comment types on students’ revision”, ELT Journal, 60(1), pp. 34-41.
Truscott, J. (1996). “The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes”, Language Learning, 46, pp. 327-369.
Zamel, V. (1985). “Responding to student writing”, TESOL Quarterly, 19, pp.79-102.