The Long-Term Effect of Implicit and Explicit Corrective Feedback on Accuracy of EFL Learners’ Descriptive Writing Skill

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Chabahar Maritime University

Abstract

Since the emergence of the process-oriented approach to second language writing instruction two main questions have been what and how error feedback should be given to the students. The question of whether teachers should provide feedback on grammar in the writing assignments of English as a foreign language students, and if so how, has been a matter of considerable debate in the field of second language writing. The present study investigated the possible effect of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on descriptive writing accuracy of Iranian intermediate EFL learners (N=39) in Hamedan Islamic Azad University. Two groups were selected: explicit corrective feedback group (N=22) and implicit corrective feedback group (N=17). They received corrective feedback on three grammatical structures. The results showed that written corrective feedback can lead to writing accuracy improvement in the short-term, but it may be unhelpful in the long-run.   

Keywords


Beuningen, C. V. (2010). Corrective feedback in L2 writing: Theoretical perspectives, empirical insights, and future directions. IJES, 10 (2), 1-27.
Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The relative effectiveness of different types of direct written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 37 (2),322-329.
Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12 (3), 267-296.
Cook, G. (2003). Applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Corder, S. P. (1982). Error analysis and interlanguage. London: Oxford University Press.
Dabaghi Varnosfadrani, A., & Basturkmen, H. (2009.). The effectiveness of implicit and explicit error correction on learners’ performance. Journal of Second Language Writing, 82-98.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Jenefer, P., & Reinders, H. (2009). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. North York: Short Run Press Ltd.
Erel, S., & Bulut, D. (2007). Error treatment in L2 writing: A comparative study of direct and indirect coded feedback in Turkish EFL context. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi Sayı, 22 (1), 397-415.
Ferris, D. (2004). The “Grammar Correction” debate in l2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (And What We Do in The Mean Time. . .?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 49-62.
Ferris, D. (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing, 8 (1),1-11.
Keshavarz, M. H. (1994). Contrastive analysis and error analysis. Tehran: Rahnama.
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. California: Pergamon Press Inc.
Larsen Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, I. (2003). L2 writing teachers’ perspectives, practices and problems regarding error feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 216-237.
Richards, J. C. (2004). Second language writing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. London: Longman.
Truscott, J. (1998). Instance theory and universal grammar in second language research. Second Language Research, 14(3), 257-291.
Truscott, J. (1996). Review article: The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327-369.