Attitudes towards English as an International Language (EIL) in Iran: Development and Validation of a New Model and Questionnaire

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Allameh Tabataba’i University

2 Allameh Tabataba'i University


This study aimed at developing and validating a new model and instrument to explore attitudes of Iranian EFL learners towards English as an International Language (EIL). In so doing, the researchers followed several rigorous steps including extensive literature review, content selection, item generation, designing the rating scales and personal information part, Delphi technique, item revision, pilot testing, reliability estimation, and finally validation. In the first phase, five dimensions were identified for the new model based on the literature and interview with a panel of experts. An initial draft of the questionnaire consisting of 33 items was designed for investigating learners’ attitudes towards EIL. Then, it was piloted with a group of 170 Iranian EFL learners. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the obtained data revealed that the questionnaire consisted of a five factor structure. Consequently, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out with another 409 Iranian EFL learners to check the fitness of the proposed model. The result of CFA indicated that the model enjoyed a satisfactory level of goodness of fit, showing that the five-factor structure including cultural realism, linguistic cultural disposition (negative), (dis)ownership of English, EIL posture, and localization was not the result of random variance in the learners’ responses.


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