Listening Assessment Task Types, Time-on-Task, and the Use of Listening Strategies among Iranian EFL Learners

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English Langauge and Literautre, Faculty of Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, English Department, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Foreign Languages, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

10.22111/ijals.2021.6823

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between listening assessment task types, time on task, and the use of listening strategy by Iranian EFL learners. For this purpose, a group of 44 Iranian EFL students (Males and Females; 14 to 25 years old) selected through convenience sampling from an English language institute in Sanandaj participated in this study. Then, they were randomly assigned into four experimental groups. In one group, note-taking was considered the listening assessment task, while in the second group oral reproduction was specified as the assessment task for assessing listening comprehension. After that, each group was further subdivided randomly into a shorter time-on-task group (20 minutes) and a longer time-on-task group (40 minutes). Next, all groups completed Vandergrift, Goh, Mareschal, and Tafaghodtari’s (2006) Meta-cognitive Awareness Listening Strategy Questionnaire. A two-way ANOVA was run to examine the effects of both listening assessment task type and time on task on listening strategy use among the four groups. The results revealed that the students in the oral reproduction task with high time on task group significantly showed higher preferences for choosing Planning-Evaluation, Mental Translation, and Problem-Solving strategies and those in the note-taking with low time on task group preferred the Directed-Attention strategy, while those in the note-taking with high time on task group preferred Person-Knowledge strategy.

Keywords


Ahmad Kord, M. (2018). The effect of task complexity and strategic planning time on writing accuracy: A case study of undergraduate students at AMU. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 6(1), 1-7.
Ainsworth, L. (2006). Common formative assessments: How to connect standards-based instruction and assessment. Thousand Oaks, Crown Press.
Bahrami, M. (2010). The effect of task types on EFL learners’ listening ability. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 9.
Birjandi, P., & Malmir, A. (2009). The effect of task-based approach on the Iranian advanced EFL learners’   narrative vs.  expository writing. The Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies (IJALS), 1(2), 1-23.
Black, P. J. (1999). Testing: Friend or foe? Theory and practice of assessment and testing. Falmer Press.
Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7-74.
Brindley, G., & Slatyer. H. (2002). Exploring task difficulty in ESL listening assessment, Language Testing, 19(4) 369-394.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (Fifth edition). Longman.
Bruton, A. (2002). From Tasking Purposes to Purposing Tasks. ELT Journal, 15, 2011, http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/3/280.abstract?sid=49c4bd80- f8a3-454f-8c93-604fe6f6dca9
Carter, R., & Nunan, D. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge University Press.
Clarke, S. (2005). Targeting assessment in the primary classroom. Hodden Muurray.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
Englert, C. S., & Thomas, C. C. (1982). Management of task involvement in special education classrooms: Implications for teacher preparation. Teacher Education and Special Education, 5(2), 3-10.
Gass, S. & Mackey, A. (2002). Frequency effects and second language acquisition: A complex picture?. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24, 249–260.
Ghavamnia, M., Tavakoli, M., & Esteki, M. (2013). The effect of pre-task and online planning conditions on complexity, accuracy, and fluency of EFL learners’ written production. Porta Linguarum, 20, 31-43.
Good, T. (1983). Classroom research: A decade of progress. Educational Psychologist, 18, 127-144.
Hofmeister, A. M., & Lubke, M. (1990). Research into practice: Implementing effective teaching research. Allyn & Bacon.
Irons, A. (2008). Enhancing learning through formative assessment and feedback. Routledge.
Kellough, R. D., & Kellough, N. G. (1999). Secondary school teaching: A guide to methods and resources; planning for competence.  Upper Saddle River, Merrill.
Knight, P. (2001). A briefing on key concepts: Formative and summative, criterion and norm-referenced assessment. Assessment Series, No.7. LTSN, Generic Centre.
Khoshsima, H., & Sadighi Tasuj, Z. (2014). The impact of task types on listening comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 3(3), 97-103.
Lamber, D., & Lines, D. (2000). Understanding assessment: Purposes, perceptions, practice. Routledge Falmer
Liao, S. (2012). Listening Strategies and Applications in EFL Classroom. Report on English education resource center of senior high schools in Taiwan.  http://english. tyhs. edu. tw/xoops/html/tyhs/teach_source101/02plan.
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and Design. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Miller, C. M. I., & Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the mark: A study of the examination game. Society for Research into HigherEducation.
Nasirian, M. R. (2012) Task-type and Listening Ability of Iranian Male Learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(6), 1144-1149. 
O'Malley, J., & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Newbury House.
Palmer, R. (2014). Listening strategies that develop active listeners. TESOL Connections, 1-5.
Pan, Y. C., & In’nami, Y. (2015). Relationship between strategy use, listening proficiency level, task type, and scores in an L2 listening test. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 45-77.
Passerini, K., & Granger, M. J. (2000). A developmental model for distance learning using the Internet. Computer & Education, 34, 1-15.
Pelligrino, J. W., Chudowsky, N., & Glaser, R (Eds.) (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. National Academies Press.
Prater, M. A. (1992). Increasing time-on-task in the classroom: Suggestions for improving the amount of time learners spend in on-task behaviors. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28(1), 22-27.
Rich, H. L., & McNeils, M. J. (1988). A study of academic time-on-task in the elementary school. Educational Research Quarterly, 12(1), 37-46.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge Language Teaching Library.
Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 27-57.
Salimi, A., Shafaei, A., & Kuhi, D. (2012). The impact of the generic features of tasks on L2 learners’ written production. Elsevier- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 653-662.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158.
Shabani, M. B., Malmir, A., & Arjmand, F. (2018). The contribution of lexical, grammatical, and propositional knowledge preparation to L2 listening comprehension. The Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 10(2), 175-208.
Shirani Bidabadi, F., & Yamat, H. (2011). The relationship between listening strategies used by Iranian EFL freshman university students and their listening proficiency levels. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 26-32.
Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics 17, 38-62.
Skehan, P. (2003). Task based instruction. Language Teaching, 36(1), 1-14.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1999). The influence of task structure and processing conditions on narrative retellings. Language Learning, 49(1), 93-120.
Thurlow, M. L., Ysseldyke, J. E., Graden, J., & Algozzine, B. (1983). Instructional ecology for students in resource and regular classrooms. Teacher Education and Special Education, 6, 248-254.
Ur, P. (1984). Teaching Listening Comprehension. Cambridge University Press.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: Acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53, 168–176.
Vandergrift, L., Goh, C. C. M., Mareschal, C. J., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2006). The meta-cofnitive awareness listening questionnaire: Development and validation. Language Learning, 56(3), 431-462.
William, M., & Bruden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge University Press.
Wittrock, M. C. (1986). Students’ thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 297-314). Macmillan.
Yorke, M. (2003). Formative assessment in higher education: Moves towards theory and enhancement of pedagogic practice. Higher Education, 45, 477-501.