Peer Observation, Reflection, and Expert Feedback: Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Online Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Department of Foreign Languages, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

10.22111/ijals.2022.41394.2253

Abstract

The objective was threefold: (a) to investigate the difference among online teaching performance of EFL student teachers at Iran University of Science and Technology who received peer feedback, expert feedback, and reflected on their own teaching practice; (b) to examine the difference between rating scores given by student teachers and those by instructor to online teaching; and (c) to determine student teachers’ best experiences, challenges, and lessons they learnt from expert feedback, peer observation, and reflection. The results of this mixed methods experimental research revealed no statistically significant difference in the three group’s scores on their second teaching practice; however, there was statistically significant difference between the scores of the first and second practices for all three groups. The results also showed that student teachers mostly underrated their first teaching, while they overrated their second teaching. The findings also indicated that their best experiences were related to using technological tools, working with Adobe Connect, making interesting materials, and using games and songs. Their challenges included lack of face-to-face communication, engaging all participants, and preparing suitable materials, whereas teaching new vocabulary in context, simplifying songs by pre-teaching their unknown words, and using online games and websites were the lessons they learnt.

Keywords


Abrahamson, D., & Chase, K. (2015). Interfacing practices: Domain theory emerges via collaborative reflection. Reflective Practice16(3), 372–389.
Adnan, M. (2018). Professional development in the transition to online teaching: The voice of entrant online instructors. ReCALL30(1), 88-111.
Al-Balushi, S. M., & Al-Abdali, N. S. (2015). Using a moodle-based professional development program to train science teachers to teach for creativity and its effectiveness on their teaching practices. Journal of Science Education and Technology24(4), 461-475.
Angelique, H., Kyle, K., & Taylor, E. (2002). Mentors and muses: New strategies for academic success. Innovative Higher Education26(3), 195-209.
Ashraf, H., Motlagh, F. G., & Salami, M. (2014). The impact of online games on learning English vocabulary by Iranian (low-intermediate) EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 286–291.
Atmojo, A. E. P., & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL classes must go online! Teaching activities and challenges during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13(1), 49–76.
Baran, E., & Correia, A. P. (2014). A professional development framework for online teaching. Tech Trends58(5), 95–101.
Barrett, M. S., & Mills, J. (2009). The inter‐reflexive possibilities of dual observations: An account from and through experience. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education22(4), 417-429.
Bates, T. (2000). Managing technological change: Strategies for college and university leaders. Jossey-Bass.
Bell, M. (2001) Supported reflective practice: A program of peer observation and feedback for academic teaching development. International Journal for Academic Development, 6(1), 29–39.
Bell, M. (2005). Peer observation partnerships in higher education. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Inc.
Bennett, S., & Santy, J. (2009). A window on our teaching practice: Enhancing individual online teaching quality though online peer observation and support: A UK case study. Nurse Education in Practice9(6), 403–406.
Bennett, S., Lee, S., Lynch, P., & Howard, L. (2010). COOLAID (Collaborative observation in the on-line environment for enhancement across institutional divides. HEA Evidence Net. http://www.new1.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/learningandtech/University_of_Hull_Briefing_Re port_26_May_2010.pdf
Borg, S. (2015). The benefits of attending ELT conferences. ELT Journal69(1), 35–46.
Brandenburg, R., Glasswell, K., Jones, M., & Ryan, J. (Eds.) (2017). Reflective theory and practice in teacher education. Springer.
Brandt, C. (2006). Allowing for practice: A critical issue in TESOL teacher preparation. ELT Journal60(4), 355–364.
Burhan-Horasanlı, E., & Ortaçtepe, D. (2016). Reflective practice-oriented online discussions: A study on EFL teachers’ reflection-on, in and for-action. Teaching and Teacher Education59, 372-382.
Burston, J. (2014). MALL: The pedagogical challenges. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(4), 344–357.
Butler, Y. G. (2019). Teaching vocabulary to young second-or foreign-language learners: What can we learn from the research?. Language Teaching for Young Learners1(1), 4–33.
Byrne, J., Brown, H., & Challen, D. (2010). Peer development as an alternative to peer observation: A tool to enhance professional development. International Journal for Academic Development15(3), 215–228.
Cakrawati, L. M. (2017). Students’ perceptions on the use of online learning platforms in EFL classrooms. Journal of English Language Teaching and Technology, 1(1), 22– 30.
Chapman, J. R., & Rich, P. J. (2018). Does educational gamification improve students’ motivation? If so, which game elements work best?. Journal of Education for Business, 93(7), 315–322.
Chism, N. V. N. (2007). Why introducing or sustaining peer review of teaching is so hard, and what you can do about it. The Department Chair18(2), 6–8.
Cirkovic-Miladinovic, I., & Dimitrijevic, M. (2020). Reflection in action: Strategies for teacher self-evaluation (EFL teacher preparedness to work with young learners). Technium Social Sciences Journal11, 46–58.
Comas-Quinn, A. (2011). Learning to teach online or learning to become an online teacher: An exploration of teachers’ experiences in a blended learning course. ReCALL23(03), 218–232.
Cosh, J. (1998). Peer observation in higher education: A reflective approach. Innovations in Education and Training International, 35, 171–176.
Davis, G. M. (2017). Songs in the young learner classroom: A critical review of evidence. ELT Journal, 71(4), 445-455.
De Paepe, L., Zhu, C., & Depryck, K. (2018). Online language teaching: Teacher perceptions of effective communication tools, required skills and challenges of online teaching. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 29(1), 129–142.
Donnelly, R. (2007). Perceived impact of peer observation of teaching in higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education19(2), 117–129.
Eri, R. (2014). Peer observation of teaching: Reflections of an early career academic. Universal Journal of Educational Research2(9), 625–631.
Farr, F., & Riordan, E. (2015). Tracing the reflective practices of student teachers in online modes. ReCALL, 27(1), 104-123.
Farrell, T. S. (2012). Reflecting on reflective practice: (Re) visiting Dewey and Schon. TESOL Journal3(1), 7–16.
Fehr, C. N., Davison, M. L., Graves, M. F., Sales, G. C., Seipel, B., & Sekhran-Sharma, S. (2012). The effects of individualized, online vocabulary instruction on picture vocabulary scores: An efficacy study. Computer Assisted Language Learning25(1), 87–102.
Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record103(6), 1013–1055.
Fullerton H. (1999). Observation of teaching. In H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, & S. Marshall (Eds.), A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 220–234). Kogan Page.
Gosling, D. (2002). Models of peer-observation of teaching. LTSN Generic Center.
Griffiths, V. (2000). The reflective dimension in teacher education. International Journal of Educational Research33(5), 539–555.
Hammersley‐Fletcher, L., & Orsmond, P. (2004). Evaluating our peers: Is peer observation a meaningful process?. Studies in Higher Education, 29(4), 489–503.
Hammersley‐Fletcher, L., & Orsmond, P. (2005). Reflecting on reflective practices within peer observation. Studies in Higher Education30(2), 213–224.
Harper, F., & Nicolson, M. (2013). Online peer observation: Its value in teacher professional development, support and well-being. International Journal for Academic Development18(3), 264–275.
Hasram, S., Arif, F. K. M., Nasir, M. K. M., Mohamad, M., Daud, M. Y., Abd Rahman, M. J., & Mohammad, W. M. R. W. (2020). Online games for primary school vocabulary teaching and learning: A literature review. Creative Education, 11(11), 23­–27.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research77(1), 81–112.
Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education11(1), 33–49.
Hauck, M., & Stickler, U. (2006). What does it take to teach online?. CALICO Journal23(3), 463–475.
Heitzmann, N., Fischer, F., & Fischer, M. R. (2018). Worked examples with errors: When self-explanation prompts hinder learning of teachers’ diagnostic competences on problem-based learning. Instructional Science46(2), 245–271.
Iravi, Y., & Malmir, A. (2022) The effect of lexical tools and applications on L2 vocabulary learning: A case of English academic core words. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 16(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2022.2102638
Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching successful online courses in higher education: A literature review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4–29.
Kell, C. (2005). Embedding peer review of teaching into departmental practice. British Educational Research Association Annual Conference. University of Glamoran.
Kessler, G. (2018). Technology and the future of language teaching. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 205–218.
Kim, M. S. (2012). Cultural-historical activity theory perspectives on constructing ICT-mediated metaphors of teaching and learning. European Journal of Teacher Education35(4), 435–448.
Kuure, L., Molin-Juustila, T., Keisanen, T., Riekki, M., Iivari, N., & Kinnula, M. (2016). Switching perspectives: From a language teacher to a designer of language learning with new technologies. Computer Assisted Language Learning29(5), 925–941.
Lee, G. C., & Wu, C. C. (2006). Enhancing the teaching experience of pre‐service teachers through the use of videos in web‐based computer‐mediated communication (CMC). Innovations in Education and Teaching International43(4), 369–380.
Lomas, L., & Kinchin, I. (2006). Developing a peer observation program with university teachers. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education18(3), 204–214.
Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education53(1), 33–43.
Luchoomun, D. (2007). The resilience of the “corporate” in post-corporate teacher appraisal: A case study from Mauritius. Asia Pacific Journal of Education27(2), 189–205.
Ma, N., Xin, S., & Du, J. Y. (2018). A peer coaching-based professional development approach to improving the learning participation and learning design skills of in-service teachers. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 21(2), 291-304.
Malmir, A., & Mohammadi, P. (2018). Teachers’ reflective teaching and self-efficacy as predicators of their professional success: A case of Iranian EFL teachers. Research in English Language Pedagogy (RELP), 6(1), 117–138.
Martin, G. A., & Double, J. M. (1998). Developing higher education teaching skills through peer observation and collaborative reflection. Innovations in Education and Training International35(2), 161–170.
Marulis, L. M., & Neuman, S. B. (2010). The effects of vocabulary intervention on young children’s word learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research80(3), 300–335.
Motallebzadeh, K., Hosseinnia, M., & Domskey, J. G. (2017). Peer observation: A key factor to improve Iranian EFL teachers’ professional development. Cogent Education4(1), 1–12.
Narciss, S. (2008). Feedback strategies for interactive learning tasks. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology3, 125–144.
Ng, P. T., & Tan, C. (2009). Community of practice for teachers: Sensemaking or critical reflective learning?. Reflective Practice10(1), 37–44.
Ozogul, G., Olina, Z., & Sullivan, H. (2008). Teacher, self and peer evaluation of lesson plans written by preservice teachers. Educational Technology Research and Development56(2), 181–201.
Pagani, F. (2002). Peer review: A tool for global co-operation and change. The OECD Observer, (235), 55–56.
Peel, D. (2005). Peer observation as a transformatory tool?. Teaching in Higher Education10(4), 489–504.
Peterson, P. L., & Comeaux, M. A. (1987). Teachers’ schemata for classroom events: The mental scaffolding of teachers’ thinking during classroom instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education3(4), 319-331.
Preece, J. (2004). Etiquette, empathy and trust in communities of practice: Stepping-stones to social capital. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 10(3), 294–302.
Prilop, C. N., Weber, K. E., & Kleinknecht, M. (2020). Effects of digital video-based feedback environments on pre-service teachers’ feedback competence. Computers in Human Behavior102, 120–131.
Prilop, C. N., Weber, K. E., & Kleinknecht, M. (2021). The role of expert feedback in the development of pre-service teachers’ professional vision of classroom management in an online blended learning environment. Teaching and Teacher Education99, 1–16.
Salehizadeh, S., Shabani, M., & Malmir, A. (2020). Professionalism: The perceptions of Iranian English teachers of competence and performance in language teaching. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(1), 1-14.
Santagata, R., & Angelici, G. (2010). Studying the impact of the lesson analysis framework on preservice     teachers’ abilities to reflect on videos of classroom teaching. Journal of Teacher Education61(4), 339-349.
Schon, D. A. (1983). Reflective practitioner. Basic Books.
Sellars, M. (2017). Reflective practice for teachers. Sage.
Senese, J. C. (2005). Teach to learn. Studying Teacher Education1(1), 43–54.
Sert, O., & Li, L. (2017). A qualitative study on CALL knowledge and materials design: Insights from pre-service EFL teachers. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and teaching, 7(3), 73–86.
Shortland, S. (2004). Peer observation: A tool for staff development or compliance?. Journal of Further and Higher Education28(2), 219–228.
Skovholt, K. (2018). Anatomy of a teacher–student feedback encounter. Teaching and Teacher Education69, 142–153.
Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. International Society for Technology in Education.
Sun, S. Y. (2014). Learner perspectives on fully online language learning. Distance Education, 35(1), 18–42.
Talib, N., Yassin, S. F. M., Nasir, M. K. M., & Bunyamin, M. A. H. (2016). Integrating technological pedagogical and content knowledge in computer programming courses: Issues and challenges. Journal of Advanced Research Design, 27(1), 1–15.
Tearle, P., & Golder, G. (2008). The use of ICT in the teaching and learning of physical education in compulsory education: How do we prepare the workforce of the future?. European Journal of Teacher Education31(1), 55–72.
Topping, K. J. (2005). Trends in peer learning. Educational Psychology25(6), 631–645.
Tripp, T. R., & Rich, P. J. (2012). The influence of video analysis on the process of teacher change. Teaching and Teacher Education28(5), 728–739.
Utku, Ö., & Dolgunsöz, E. (2018). Teaching EFL vocabulary to young digital natives through online games: A study with Turkish 5th grade EFL learners. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching5(1), 115–130.
Van Manen, M. (1991). The tact of teaching: The meaning of pedagogical thoughtfulness. Suny Press.
Verhallen, M. J., & Bus, A. G. (2010). Low-income immigrant pupils learning vocabulary through digital picture storybooks. Journal of Educational Psychology102(1), 54–61.
Volery, T., & Lord, D. (2000). Critical success factors in online education. International Journal of Educational Management, 14(5), 216 –223.
Walker, R. (2015). Peer observation for online distance learning tutors: Creating the conditions for effective peer exchange. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 18(1), 34-51.
Wang, X. C., & Hoot, J. L. (2006). Information and communication technology in early childhood education. Early Education and Development, 17(3), 317–322.
Waxman, H. C., & Tellez, K. (2002). Research synthesis on effective teaching practices for English language learners. Publication Series.
Weber, K. E., Gold, B., Prilop, C. N., & Kleinknecht, M. (2018). Promoting pre-service teachers’ professional vision of classroom management during practical school training: Effects of a structured online-and video-based self-reflection and feedback intervention. Teaching and Teacher Education76, 39–49.
Webster, N. L., & Valeo, A. (2011). Teacher preparedness for a changing demographic of language learners. TESL Canada Journal, 28(2), 105–105.
Wennergren, A. C. (2016). Teachers as learners–with a little help from a critical friend. Educational Action Research24(2), 260-279.
Wenger, E., McDermott, R. A., & Snyder, W. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Harvard Business Press.
Wolff, C. E., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. (2017). See and tell: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ interpretations of problematic classroom management events. Teaching and Teacher Education66, 295–308.
Wolff, C. E., van den Bogert, N., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. (2015). Keeping an eye on learning: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ representations of classroom management events. Journal of Teacher Education66(1), 68–85.
Wood, J. (2001). Can software support children’s vocabulary development?. Language Learning & Technology5(1), 166–201.
Yang, M., Badger, R., & Yu, Z. (2006). A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of Second Language Writing15(3), 179–200.
Yang, Y. F., & Kuo, N. C. (2020). New teaching strategies from student teachers’ pedagogical conceptual change in CALL. System90, 102­–218.
Yiend, J., Weller, S., & Kinchin, I. (2014). Peer observation of teaching: The interaction between peer review and developmental models of practice. Journal of Further and Higher Education38(4), 465–484.
Yip, F. W., & Kwan, A. C. (2006). Online vocabulary games as a tool for teaching and learning English vocabulary. Educational Media International43(3), 233–249.
Zhang, S., Liu, Q., & Wang, Q. (2017). A study of peer coaching in teachers’ online professional learning communities. Universal Access in the Information Society16(2), 337–347.